We have always heard that we must complete the entire course of antibiotic. Have we ever thought that why are we advised to do that? Well, the answer is that the Bactria has become smart and has devised ways to develop resistance against the antibiotics. Bacteria are no longer afraid from the medicines rather they have become resistant against the action of these antibiotics.
Scientist worked hard and finally has found the reason that why after some time bacteria resist the action of antibiotics. There are few mechanism that bacteria have adopted which are:
- Surface efflux pumps
On the surface of bacteria, certain pumps are present. So whenever the drug enters the body and tries to invade the bacterial cell, these pumps are activated which the drug outside the cell. So no matter how much medicine you are taking it won’t bother the bacteria and it will continue to multiply.
- DNA mutation
There are certain classes of antibiotics which are meant kill the specific kind of bacteria. For instance, tetracyclines are used against, S.aureus, Chlamydomonas, and other bacteria so tetracycline will only recognize these bacteria. When the antibiotic is taken the bacteria change their structure or alter the structure of DNA and hence are not recognized by the drug. In this way,the drug does not kill the bacteria.
- Enzymatic degradation of drugs
Cephalosporin and tetracycline are chemically broken down by the enzymes released by the bacteria. In this way the drug becomes ineffective and hence does not exert the anti-bacteria action.